Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of OSA and sleep quality in children and young adults with children’s interstitial and diffuse lung disease (chILD).
A polysomnography (PSG) was performed in room air in all consecutive patients followed at a national reference centre between June 2018 and September 2019. Clinical and PSG data were collected.
The PSG data of 20 patients (12 girls, median age 9 (range 0.5-20) years), were analyzed. Seven (35%) patients had pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), 5 (25%) a disorder of surfactant metabolism, 3 (15%) diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, 4 (20%) chILD of unknown etiology and one patient had laryngeal and pulmonary sarcoidosis. The median obstructive apnea-hypnea index (OAHI) was normal at 0 events/hour, with a value > 4 events/hour being observed in 2 young adults: an 18-year-old male with PAP and a vital capacity of 27% predicted who had an OAHI of 10.7 events/hour, and a 20-year-old male with laryngeal and pulmonary sarcoidosis who had positional OSA with an OAHI of 19.5 events/hour. The median total sleep time, sleep efficiency, % of wake after sleep onset, and sleep stages were moderately disturbed.
Moderate or severe OSA was not observed in children <18 years with chILD. Mild or moderate OSA was observed in 2 young adults with PAP and sarcoidosis. As opposed to adults, OSA seems uncommon in children with chILD.

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