Migraine patients are frequently affected by sleep complaints. The ketogenic diet (KD) is an option for the treatment of migraine. Our aim was: 1) to assess the effects of KD on sleep complaints in patients affected by migraine and 2) to verify if sleep changes were related to the effects of the diet on headache symptoms.
From January 2020 to July 2022 we consecutively enrolled 70 migraine patients who were treated with KD as a preventive therapy. We collected information regarding: 1) anthropometric measures; 2) migraine intensity, frequency and disability; 3) subjective sleep complaints, i.e. insomnia, sleep quality, by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).
After 3 months of KD therapy, anthropometric measures considerably changed, i.e. body mass index and free fat mass, and migraine significantly improved, i.e. lower intensity, frequency and disability. Regarding sleep, we observed that insomnia affected a decreased rate of patients (T0: 60% versus T1: 40%, p < 0.001). Similarly, patients with poor sleep were significantly less after KD therapy (T0: 74.3% versus T1: 34.3%, p < 0.001). Finally, EDS prevalence declined at the follow-up (T0: 40% versus T1: 12.9%, p < 0.001). Sleep features modifications were not correlated with migraine improvements and with anthropometric changes.
For the first time we demonstrated that KD may improve sleep complaints in migraine patients. Interestingly, the positive effect of KD on sleep is independent of migraine improvements and anthropometric modifications.

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