Sleep-wake misperception has mainly been reported in insomnia patients. Conversely, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sleep-wake misperception in a large cohort of patients with various sleep-wake disorders, all diagnosed along the third version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders.
We retrospectively included 2738 patients examined by polysomnography, who in addition estimated upon awakening their total sleep time, sleep onset latency and Wake after sleep onset (WASO). We computed subjective-objective mismatch by the formula (subjective – objective value)/objective value ×100; negative and positive values indicated under- and overestimation, respectively.
In the entire sample, the magnitude of under- and overestimation of total sleep time was similar, but varied significantly between diagnostic groups, with insomnia and insufficient sleep syndrome showing the most pronounced underestimation and REM parasomnia and circadian rhythm disorders showing the most pronounced overestimation of total sleep time. In all diagnostic categories, a majority tended to overestimate their sleep onset latency and to underestimate the amount of WASO. Younger age was independently correlated with underestimation of total sleep time and WASO, and with overestimation of sleep onset latency. Overestimation of sleep onset latency independently correlated to an increased latency to N3 sleep stage on polysomnography.
While sleep-wake misperception is highly prevalent in all sleep-wake disorders, significant differences exist in magnitude of under- and overestimation between distinct diagnostic groups.

Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.