Approximately 5 % of gastrointestinal bleeding is due to small intestinal bleeding. Bleeding from small intestinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare, with few reported cases. Finding the precise location and boundary is difficult during surgery, so we tried using intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG). Use of ICG in a case of intestinal AVM is reported here for the first time, with a review of the literature.
A 48-YEAR-old male had anemia and low hemoglobin level (Hb) 4.0 g/dL. After several examinations including small intestinal endoscopy, capsule endoscopy and angiography, AVM was identified. Preoperative diagnosis was AVM caused by branching of the ileocolic artery (ICA). Meanwhile, macroscopy showed engorgement of the vein in the ileum wall and mesentery, the boundary of which was unclear. We performed intra-operative monitoring with ICG. After intravenous injection of ICG, the boundary and location became clear. The abnormal ileum was 30 cm in length and located 130 cm from the Treitz ligament, which was different from angiographic findings. Pathology showed dilated vascular hyperplasia of the submucosa, tunica and chorionic membrane. Final diagnosis was ileum AVM. The postoperative course was uneventful and gastrointestinal bleeding stopped.
ICG monitoring aided diagnosis and treatment of Ileum AVM, which was treated by laparoscopic surgery.
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