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Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in China.

Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in China.
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Yang X, Chen X, Zhuang M, Yuan Z, Nie S, Lu M, Jin L, Ye W,


Yang X, Chen X, Zhuang M, Yuan Z, Nie S, Lu M, Jin L, Ye W, (click to view)

Yang X, Chen X, Zhuang M, Yuan Z, Nie S, Lu M, Jin L, Ye W,

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Scientific reports 2017 12 087(1) 17249 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-17617-2
Abstract

Previous results regarding the associations between esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk and smoking/alcohol drinking in high-risk areas are inconsistent. We performed a large population-based case-control study from 2010 to 2013 in a high-incidence area of China, and enrolled 1353 ESCC cases and 1961 controls. Data regarding smoking and alcohol drinking were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. After adjusting for alcohol drinking and other potential confounders, male heavy smokers (i.e., those who started smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day or 40 pack-years, or started smoking early), showed a moderately increased risk for ESCC; however, current smoking was not associated with an increased risk. Alcohol drinking among males significantly increased the risk for ESCC (OR = 2.20, 95%CI:1.79~2.70). We observed increasing excess ESCC risks with decreasing age at behavior initiation as well as with increasing duration and intensity of alcohol intake, which were particularly evident among current smokers. In contrast, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking was not associated with ESCC risk among females. In conclusion, alcohol drinking shows a monotonic dose-response relationship with ESCC risk among men, and this relationship is particularly evident among smokers.

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