We aimed to identify socioeconomic and clinical risk factors for post-intensive care unit (ICU)-related long-term cognitive impairment (LTCI).
After delirium during ICU stay, LTCI has been increasingly recognized, but without attention to socioeconomic factors.
We enrolled a prospective, multicenter cohort of ICU survivors with shock or respiratory failure from surgical and medical ICUs across 5 civilian and Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals from 2010 to 2016. Our primary outcome was LTCI at 3- and 12 months post-hospital discharge defined by the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Symptoms (RBANS) global score. Covariates adjusted using multivariable linear regression included age, sex, race, AHRQ socioeconomic index, Charlson comorbidity, Framingham stroke risk, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, duration of coma, delirium, hypoxemia, sepsis, education level, hospital type, insurance status, discharge disposition, and ICU drug exposures.
Of 1040 patients, 71% experienced delirium, and 47% and 41% of survivors had RBANS scores >1 standard deviation below normal at 3- and 12 months, respectively. Adjusted analysis indicated that delirium, non-White race, lower education, and civilian hospitals (as opposed to VA), were associated with at least a half standard deviation lower RBANS scores at 3- and 12 months (P ≤ 0.03). Sex, AHRQ socioeconomic index, insurance status, and discharge disposition were not associated with RBANS scores.
Socioeconomic and clinical risk factors, such as race, education, hospital type, and delirium duration, were linked to worse PICS ICU-related, LTCI. Further efforts may focus on improved identification of higher-risk groups to promote survivorship through emerging improvements in cognitive rehabilitation.