Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 2017 11 16() doi 10.1007/s00127-017-1458-x
This population-based study aims to investigate socio-economic factors, depression and psychosis as independent risk factors for a suicide attempt that requires hospitalization, and estimate the incidence of suicide attempts.
Individual-level administrative data were analysed that were collected for all members of the Socialist Health Insurance Schemes in Belgium during the period 2011-2013 (N = 3,156,030) in the context of the financing of the health care services provided. Bivariate and multivariate odds ratios were calculated for multiple socio-economic factors, socio-demographic factors and the presence of depression and psychosis.
During the study period, 4063 persons were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt. The incidence of suicide attempts with hospital admittance was 48.0/100,000 persons/year. Being unemployed, incapable of work over a shorter or longer period with substitute income, living on social welfare, having an increased healthcare reimbursement, living alone and using antidepressants or antipsychotics were identified as independent factors that contributed to the risk of hospitalization due to a suicide attempt.
Persons from low income groups, however defined, those living alone, or persons using antidepressants or antipsychotics are at an increased risk of attempting suicide and needing hospitalization for it. A social policy that focuses on the improvement of these factors or their consequences may be expected to have a favourable effect on the number of suicide attempts. Funding of mental health care should also better match population needs.