“SOS teeth” are defined as the first priority teeth for treatment, that have distinct cavitation reaching the pulp chamber or only root fragments are present. These are teeth with severe morbidity, that may require pulp capping, root canal treatment, or extraction, and therefore should be treated first. The study aims to explore whether or not a metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with SOS teeth. To that end, we performed across-sectional records-based study of a nationally representative sample of 132,529 military personnel aged 18-50 years, who attended the military dental clinics for one year. The mean number of SOS had no statistically significant association with: smoking ( = 0.858), alcohol consumption ( = 0.878), hypertension ( = 0.429), diabetes mellitus ( = 0.866), impaired glucose tolerance ( = 0.909), hyperlipidemia ( = 0.246), ischemic heart disease ( = 0.694), S/P myocardial infarction ( = 0.957), obstructive sleep apnea ( = 0.395), fatty liver ( = 0.074), S/P stroke ( = 0.589), and S/P transient ischemic attack ( = 0.095) and with parental history of: diabetes ( = 0.396)], cardiovascular disease ( = 0.360), stroke ( = 0.368), and sudden death ( = 0.063) as well as with any of the medical auxiliary examinations ( > 0.05). Cariogenic diet was positively associated with SOS teeth ( < 0.001). We conclude that SOS teeth had no statistically significant association with MetS components or with conditions that are consequences or associated with MetS. The only statistically significant parameter was a cariogenic diet, a well-known risk factor for caries and MetS.