Fibromyalgia is a rheumatologic condition characterized by multiple and chronic body pain, and other typical symptoms such as intense fatigue, anxiety and depression. It is a very complex disease where treatment is often made by non-medicated alternatives in order to alleviate symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life. Herein, we propose a method to detect patients with fibromyalgia (n = 252, 126 controls and 126 patients with fibromyalgia) through the analysis of their blood plasma using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometric techniques, hence, providing a low-cost, fast and accurate diagnostic approach. Different chemometric algorithms were tested to classify the spectral data; genetic algorithm with linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) achieved the best diagnostic results with a sensitivity of 89.5% in an external test set. The GA-LDA model identified 24 spectral wavenumbers responsible for class separation; amongst these, the Amide II (1,545 cm) and proteins (1,425 cm) were identified to be discriminant features. These results reinforce the potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis as a new tool to screen and detect patients with fibromyalgia in a fast, low-cost, non-destructive and minimally invasive fashion.