Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare condition. However, although there have been multiple reports of spontaneous regression, the definitive pathogenic mechanism of this phenomenon is still unclear.
We encountered a case of a 78-year-old man who was undergoing dialysis for end-stage kidney disease with hepatitis C virus-associated chronic hepatitis presenting with HCC. The patient had previously undergone right lobectomy of the liver, but the cancer recurred with multiple lung metastases after 5 months. Approximately 13 months after the initial diagnosis of recurrence, the lung metastases decreased in size and eventually resolved without any anticancer therapy. The patient remains alive for over 41 months after recurrence.
Based on our case and literature, Hypoxia with hypotension due to hemodialysis can reduce the blood and oxygen supply of the body, which may lead to the spontaneous regression of the metastatic tumors.
We herein reported a case of spontaneous regression of HCC undergoing dialysis.

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