In past ten years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have gained scientific attention due to their importance in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and theirpotential as biomarkersin liquid biopsies. They act as master post-transcriptional regulators that control most cellular processes. As one miRNA can target several mRNAs, often within the same pathway, dysregulated expression of miRNAs may alter particular cellular responses and contribute, or lead, to the development of various diseases.In this review, we give an overview of the current research on miRNAs in allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Specifically, we discuss howindividualmiRNAs function in the regulation of immune responses in epithelial cells and specialized immune cells in response to different environmental factors and respiratory viruses. In addition, we review insightsobtained fromexperiments with murine models of allergic airway and skin inflammation andoffer an overview of studiesfocusing on miRNA discovery using profiling techniques and bioinformatic modelling of the network effect of multiple miRNAs. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of research intomiRNA function in allergy and asthma to improve our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneousgroup of diseases.
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