For most paediatric urologists dealing with the elevated intra-abdominal testis, the two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy is a well-described surgical technique. Testicular ascension is a well-reported side effect of the operation that might be resolved with a repeat treatment. The goal of this study is to use the best available information to assess the rate of future testicular ascent and repeat surgery after a two-stage Fowler-Stephens procedure. Researchers chose 16 studies that were relevant to our theme. On follow-up, 0–13% of testicles were found to be in an improper posture. The definition of an acceptable postoperative posture differed between research, and data on repeat operations were few. According to available statistics, the rate of recurrent orchiopexy following two-stage Fowler-Stephens is 2.6–7.5%.The two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy is a highly effective surgical procedure for treating elevated intra-abdominal testes. Because of different criteria and short sample numbers, determining testicular ascent rates is challenging. While repeat operations are usually recommended, the actual rate of repeat orchiopexy is rarely recorded, and long-term results after a third treatment are few.

Reference: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11934-021-01049-7