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Staphylococcus aureus biofilm elicits the expansion, activation and polarization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in vivo and in vitro.

Staphylococcus aureus biofilm elicits the expansion, activation and polarization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in vivo and in vitro.
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Peng KT, Hsieh CC, Huang TY, Chen PC, Shih HN, Lee MS, Chang PJ,


Peng KT, Hsieh CC, Huang TY, Chen PC, Shih HN, Lee MS, Chang PJ, (click to view)

Peng KT, Hsieh CC, Huang TY, Chen PC, Shih HN, Lee MS, Chang PJ,

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PloS one 2017 08 1612(8) e0183271 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0183271
Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of biofilm infections in periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Accumulating evidence has shown that the immunosuppressive environment established by S. aureus biofilm infection in PJIs involves the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-macrophages. Due to the diversity of MDSCs, little is known about whether S. aureus biofilm preferentially expands specific MDSC subsets or whether MDSCs can further differentiate into M2-macrophages during S. aureus biofilm infection. Here, we show that in agreement with the results from an established rat PJI model, S. aureus biofilm cocultured with freshly isolated bone marrow cells (BMCs) in vitro significantly increases the proportions of MDSCs, total macrophages and M2-macrophages. Interestingly, we find that treatment of the BMCs in vitro with S. aureus biofilm preferentially promotes the expansion of monocytic MDSCs but not granulocytic MDSCs. Biofilm treatment also substantially enhances the overall MDSC immunosuppressive activity in addition to the MDSC expansion in vitro. Importantly, we provide evidence that S. aureus biofilm is capable of further stimulating the conversion of monocytic MDSCs into M2-macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our studies reveal a direct link between MDSCs and M2-macrophages occurring in S. aureus-associated PJIs.

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