This review captures recent advances in biological and translational research on stem cells. In particular, we discuss new discoveries and concepts regarding stem cell treatment of aging-related disorders. A myriad of stem cell sources exists, from hematopoietic to mesenchymal and neural cell lineages. We examine current applications of exogenous adult bone marrow-derived stem cells as an effective and safe transplantable cell source, as well as the use of electrical stimulation to promote endogenous neurogenesis for Parkinson’s disease. We also explore the potential of transplanting exogenous umbilical cord blood cells and mobilizing host resident stem cells in vascular dementia and aging. In addition, we assess the ability of small molecules to recruit resident stem cells in Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, we evaluate mechanisms of action recently implicated in stem cell therapy, such as the role of long non-coding RNAs, G-protein coupled receptor 5, and NeuroD1. Our goal is to provide a synopsis of recent milestones regarding the application of stem cells in aging.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.