The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells – satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro. Importantly, we identified that Sdf-1 caused an increase in the expression of tetraspanin CD9 – adhesion protein involved in myoblasts fusion. In the current study we aimed to uncover the details of molecular mechanism of Sdf-1 action. We focused at the Sdf-1 receptors – Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, as well as signaling pathways induced by these molecules in primary myoblasts, as well as various stem cells – mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells, i.e. the cells of different migration and myogenic potential. We showed that Sdf-1 altered actin organization via FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42), and Rac-1 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1). Moreover, we showed that Sdf-1 modified the transcription profile of genes encoding factors engaged in cells adhesion and migration. As the result, cells such as primary myoblasts or embryonic stem cells, became characterized by more effective migration when transplanted into regenerating muscle.
Stem cells migration during skeletal muscle regeneration – the role of Sdf-1/Cxcr4 and Sdf-1/Cxcr7 axis.