Cancer science 2018 02 14() doi 10.1111/cas.13533
The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is related with tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) in several cancers. However, the effects of ABCG2 on CSC-related malignant characteristics in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not well elucidated. In this study, we compared the characteristics of low (ABCG2-) and high (ABCG2+)-ABCG2-expressing PDAC cells after cell sorting. In adherent culture condition, human PDAC cells, PANC-1, contained approximately 10% ABCG2+ cell populations, and ABCG2+ cells displayed more and longer microvilli compared with ABCG2- cells. Unexpectedly, ABCG2+ cells did not show significant drug resistance against 5-FU, gemcitabine and vincristine, and ABCG2- cells exhibited higher sphere formation ability and stemness marker expression than those of ABCG2+ cells. Cell growth and motility was greater in ABCG2- cells compared with ABCG2+ cells. On the other hand, EMT ability between ABCG2- and ABCG2+ cells was comparable. In 3D-culture condition, spheres derived from ABCG2- cells generated a large number of ABCG2+ cells, and the expression levels of stemness markers in these spheres were higher than spheres from ABCG2+ cells. Furthermore, spheres containing large populations of ABCG2+ cells exhibited high resistance against anti-cancer drugs presumably depending on ABCG2. ABCG2+ cells in PDAC in adherent culture are not correlated with stemness and malignant behaviors, but ABCG2+ cells derived from ABCG2- cells after sphere formation have stemness characteristics and anti-cancer drug resistance. These findings suggest that ABCG2- cells generate ABCG2+ cells and the malignant potential of ABCG2+ cells in PDAC varies depending on their environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.