Metastases extending to the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus are extremely rare; however, advances in neuroimaging have increased the reported incidence. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) affords the precise delivery of focused radiation to minimize adverse radiation effects. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of SRS in the treatment of pituitary and cavernous sinus metastases.
Analysis was performed on 23 patients with pituitary and cavernous sinus metastases who underwent treatment using SRS between 1996 and 2021. The cohort was categorized into 2 groups in terms of metastasis location: pituitary involvement (Group 1, n = 11) and cavernous sinus involvement (Group 2, n = 12). Overall survival, local tumor control, and distal tumor control rates were compared between the two groups using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The median age of the cohort was 52.2 years and the median tumor volume was 4.5 mL. Overall survival rates were as follows: 1 year (72.9%), 2 years (51.8%), and 3 years (45.3%). Local tumor control rates were as follows: 1 year (82.3%), 2 years (82.3%), and 3 years (65.9%). Visual deficit and hypopituitarism were the most common presentations in Group 1, whereas cranial nerve deficit was the most common presentation in Group 2.
SRS appears to be a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of pituitary and cavernous sinus metastases. GKRS is a relatively simple procedure, which places minimal stress on the patient, thereby facilitating further anti-cancer treatment. Considering the limited survival duration in cases of metastasis, it is very likely that post-GKRS complications (e.g., new onset cranial nerve deficit and hypopituitarism) would not become an issue before patient passes away.

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