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Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome as the initial presentation of nail-patella syndrome: a case of a de novo LMX1B mutation.

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome as the initial presentation of nail-patella syndrome: a case of a de novo LMX1B mutation.
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Nakata T, Ishida R, Mihara Y, Fujii A, Inoue Y, Kusaba T, Isojima T, Harita Y, Kanda C, Kitanaka S, Tamagaki K,


Nakata T, Ishida R, Mihara Y, Fujii A, Inoue Y, Kusaba T, Isojima T, Harita Y, Kanda C, Kitanaka S, Tamagaki K, (click to view)

Nakata T, Ishida R, Mihara Y, Fujii A, Inoue Y, Kusaba T, Isojima T, Harita Y, Kanda C, Kitanaka S, Tamagaki K,

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BMC nephrology 2017 03 2318(1) 100 doi 10.1186/s12882-017-0516-7
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the LMX1B gene and is characterized by nail dysplasia, skeletal abnormalities, and nephropathy. We herein report a case of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) prior to overt orthopedic symptoms in a patient with NPS.

CASE PRESENTATION
A 24-year-old woman presented to our hospital with knee pain. She had poorly developed nails, hypoplastic patellas, dislocation of the elbows, and iliac horns in the pelvis. At the age of 7, she developed nephrotic syndrome and was diagnosed with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by renal biopsy. She received long-term corticosteroid therapy with no obvious response. Her clinical course and orthopedic manifestations indicated NPS, and a genetic analysis showed a de novo mutation in the LMX1B gene (c.819 + 1G > A). Nephropathy in this case was considered to be associated with NPS. Therefore, we discontinued corticosteroids without the exacerbation of nephrotic syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS
Patients with NPS may develop nephrotic syndrome prior to overt orthopedic symptoms and only show non-specific findings in renal biopsy at an early stage of NPS nephropathy. Hereditary nephrotic syndrome, often presenting as childhood-onset SRNS, may also be difficult to diagnose in patients with the following conditions: renal symptoms prior to overt extrarenal symptoms, de novo mutations, and non-specific findings in renal biopsy. Therefore, in the management of SRNS in children, we need to reconsider the possibility of hereditary diseases such as NPS even without a family history.

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