The number of indications for strictureplasty for Crohn’s disease has been greatly reduced since the widespread use of biologics, although the risk of intestinal failure remains. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcomes of strictureplasty and to identify risk factors for site-specific recurrence in the era of biologics.
Consecutive patients treated with strictureplasty for Crohn’s disease between 2002 and 2018 were retrospectively included. Univariate analysis was carried out. Risk factors for recurrence were identified through a multilevel logistic regression analysis.
Two hundred sixty-six patients were included in the study ( 171 males, median age 39.5 years, range 18-76 years). The majority of the 718 strictures requiring surgery in these patients were located in the ileum (61%), treated with conventional strictureplasty (89.6%) and required an additional resection (73.7%). Median follow-up time and time to recurrence were 96 months and 62.5 months respectively. The site-specific recurrence rate was 12.2% at 5 years and 25.7% at 10 years. Smoking was associated with a higher risk of recurrence in patients with milder disease. The 10-year recurrence rate was significantly higher for strictureplasties performed in the terminal ileum (30.9%, p = 0.0019) as compared to the ileum (21.8%) and the jejunum (8.4%). Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that postoperative exposure to biologics (OR 4.74, p 0.001), nonconventional strictureplasty (OR 3.57, p 0.008) and a strictureplasty performed on a previous anastomosis (OR 13.58, p 0.002) were associated with site-specific recurrence.
Strictureplasty is associated with optimal long-term outcomes in the biologic era and should be performed when feasible, to reduce the risk of intestinal failure in Crohn’s disease patients.