Patients aged ≥75 years with the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) are at a higher risk of stroke and, according to recent recommendations, should receive oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. This study aimed to assess the recommended prophylactic antithrombotic therapy among patients with AF aged ≥ 75 years and its compliance with current guidelines. We also aimed to identify predisposing factors associated with the administration of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in elderly patients with AF.This was a retrospective, single-center observational study. Patients with AF aged ≥75 years hospitalized at a reference cardiology center from 2014 to 2017 were included in the analysis.Among the 1236 eligible patients (43.4% male; mean age, 82 years), OACs were recommended in 90.1% of cases. Of these, 59.8% of patients used NOACs and 40.2% used vitamin K antagonists. Additionally, 3.3% of patients received antiplatelet (AP) therapy and 2.5% were administered low molecular weight heparin. Only 4.5% of patients did not receive any anticoagulant treatment. The majority (89.9%) of patients received relevant prophylactic antithrombotic therapy according to current guidelines; only 1.4% were overtreated and 8.7% were undertreated. The significant predictors of NOAC therapy among patients treated with anticoagulants were non-permanent AF (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.18, P = .0001), age-by 5 years (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.16-1.52, P = .0001), and glomerular filtration rate-by 5 units (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P = .0066).A high percentage of AF patients aged ≥75 years receive OACs, mainly NOACs. Most patients are treated according to the current guidelines; under treatment is primarily observed in patients receiving AP therapy. Non-permanent AF, age, and preservation of renal function are significant predictors of NOAC use.