The extracellular matrix plays an important role in cellular balance, and collagen fibers are its most important component. Over the last few years, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has been used for the analysis of collagen fibers in several types of gynaecological cancers, such as breast and ovarian cancer. The value of collagen parameters obtained with this technique to gain insights on the physiopathology and on the prognostic evaluation of cancer has been advocated. Herein, we have characterized the collagen fibers in squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and preneoplastic lesions using the SHG microscopy. Collagen parameters, quantity, organization, and uniformity, of VSCC, adjacent skin of VSCC or preneoplastic lesions were compared with values obtained in normal tissue of healthy control. There was an evident decrease in the values of collagen fiber parameters in the VSCC. Increased quantity and uniformity of tumor associated collagen fibers were associated with the presence of lymph node metastases, which suggest a prognostic value of such parameters in the evaluation of vulvar cancer.