To explore the relationship between dietary quality and the risk of diabetes and prediabetes among urban women based on alternative healthy eating index-2010（AHEI-2010). From March to July 2016, a total of 1 061 female residents from 8 cities, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Xuchang, Jilin, Wuhu and Chenzhou in China, were selected by using the multi-stage sampling method. The basic characteristics of all participants were collected by using self-made questionnaire, and the dietary status of the subjects was collected by using 24-hour dietary recall method. AHEI-2010 scores were calculated and the diet was divided into low, medium and high dietary quality group according to the third quartile. All participants received physical examination, systolic blood pressure test, fasting blood glucose test and glycosylated hemoglobin test. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between dietary quality and the risk of diabetes and prediabetes. The age of all participants was（48.0±17.5) years old. The median（, ) of AHEI-2010 score was 46.52（40.04, 54.88). The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 13.3%（141 cases) and 50.0%（530 cases), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, city, education, diet control, physical activity, energy intake and waist circumference, compared with the low diet quality group, the （95%) values of medium, high dietary quality group and diabetes risk were 0.96（0.57-1.62) and 0.63（0.36-1.09), respectively; the 95%) values of medium, high dietary quality group and prediabetes risk were 0.93（0.64-1.35) and 1.28（0.87-1.88), respectively. The dietary quality of urban women based on AHEI-2010 evaluation is not related to the risk of diabetes and prediabetes.