Participants included 121 collegiate athletes (65 men and 56 women) from six team sports and three individual sports. Subjective assessments of sleep included at-home sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Objective assessments of sleep included three consecutive off-season weekdays of wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE).
Actigraphy revealed that 94% of student-athletes received <8 hours of sleep/night, while 61% received <7 hours/night. Subjective assessments revealed that 35% had PSQI >5, 28% had ISI scores >7, and 19% had ESS scores >10. Objective TST was not different between sexes (6.7±0.1 vs. 6.7±0.1 hours, p=0.99), but females demonstrated higher SE (87±1 vs. 82±1%, p<0.01) and lower WASO (31±2 vs. 38±2 min, p=0.02). Male athletes significantly overestimated TST (i.e., subjective minus objective TST) when compared to female athletes (Δ0.7±0.1 vs. Δ0.3±0.1 hours/night; p<0.01). PSQI, ISI, and ESS were not different between sexes.
The majority of male and female collegiate athletes received less than age-recommended levels of sleep, and 44% subjectively reported poor sleep quality, mild severity insomnia, and/or excessive daytime sleepiness. Sex differences were observed in male and female collegiate athletes.
Copyright © 2020 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.