The aim of the study was to characterize subsequent neoplasm (SN) (malignant (SMN), benign (BSNs), and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)) treated previously for a childhood solid malignant tumor at the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Motol University Hospital, Prague.
We evaluated a cohort of 4059 childhood cancer survivors treated between 1975 and 2018.
From 4059 survivors, 170 (4.3 %) developed at least one SMN – 193 SMNs in 170 survivors, 21 of them (0.5 % of all survivors) had two or more SMNs and 34 of them (0.8 %) had one SMN and one or more BSNs. Mortality for an SMN was 38.2 % i.e. 1.6 % of all survivors. The most frequent SMNs were thyroid carcinoma (37, 19.2 %), tumors of the central nervous system (25, 13.0 %), soft tissue sarcoma (23, 11.9 %), breast carcinoma (19, 9.8 %), and leukemia (11, 5.7 %). Genetic syndromes were present in 25 patients with SMNs (14.7 %) and in 16 patients with only BSNs (13.4 %). SMNs usually developed in second decade or later after finishing of therapy. We observed some not well known risk factors of SNs e.g. spinal irradiation orI metaiodobenzylguanidine radiotherapy in 2 cases of secondary thyroid cancer, cyclophosphamide therapy in all 8 cases of secondary urinary bladder sarcoma or 4 from 7 SNMSC developed SMN.
We confirmed data from previous studies of SNs and observed some not so well known risk factors. Our results and the literature show that the incidence of SMNs is 3-10 % of survivors and is associated with high mortality.

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