Substances of abuse (SoA), as well as smoking and alcohol consumption, are well known for their impact on male fertility status, erectile function, and ejaculation. We assessed SoA consumption habits in a cohort of men seeking medical attention for uro-andrological purposes. Data from 7447 men seeking medical attention for the first time for uro-andrological purposes were analyzed. A complete medical and sexual history was collected for each patient. Smoking, alcohol, and SoA consumption were investigated. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the whole cohort. The primary motivations for their evaluation were lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and infertility in 1912 (25.7%), 2944 (39.5%), and 2591 (34.8%) men, respectively. Previous use of SoA was reported by 378 (5.1%) men, and 190 (2.6%) individuals were current users. Patients seeking medical attention for infertility were more frequently current SoA users (107; 4.1%) than men with ED (66; 2.2%) and LUTS (17; 0.9%) (both P < 0.001). Current users of SoA were younger than those with past or no SoA history (P < 0.001). Current SoA users were more frequently smokers (P < 0.001) and alcohol consumers (P < 0.001) than those with a previous history or those who had never tried SoA. In conclusion, approximately 3% of men seeking medical attention for uro-andrological purposes were current SoA consumers. Infertile men reported a higher use of SoA than those with ED or LUTS. Current SoA users were younger and more frequently concomitant smokers and alcohol consumers compared to those who did or had never used SoA.