BMC nephrology 2018 03 1419(1) 64 doi 10.1186/s12882-018-0858-9
Both prevention and treatment of recurrent immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in kidney transplant recipients are important since recurrent IgAN seems to affect long-term graft survival. We present here a case of recurrent IgAN that was successfully treated using steroid pulse therapy plus tonsillectomy 10 years after kidney transplantation.
A 46-year-old male was admitted for an episode biopsy with a serum creatinine level of 1.8 mg/dl and proteinuria (0.7 g/day). Histological features showed recurrent IgAN (only focal segmental mesangial proliferation) and severe arteriolar hyalinosis partly associated with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, with limited interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (5%) (IF/TA) 8 years after transplantation. Sodium restriction and conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus successfully reduced his proteinuria to the level of 0.15 g/day. However, 2 years later, his proteinuria increased again (1.0 g/day) and a second episode biopsy showed global mesangial proliferation with glomerular endocapillary and extracapillary proliferation accompanied by progressive IF/TA (20%). The steroid pulse therapy plus tonsillectomy successfully decreased his proteinuria and he achieved clinical remission 3 years after this treatment.
This case, presented with a review of relevant literature, demonstrates the difficulty and importance of the treatment of recurrent IgAN and calcineurin inhibitor arteriolopathy, especially in long-term kidney allograft management.