Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2017 11 21() pii ATVBAHA.117.310358
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the atherometabolic syndrome exhibit a deadly dyslipoproteinemia that arises in part from impaired hepatic disposal of C-TRLs (cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich remnant apoB [apolipoprotein B] lipoproteins). We previously identified syndecan-1 as a receptor for C-TRLs that directly mediates endocytosis via rafts, independent from coated pits. Caveolins and flotillins form rafts but facilitate distinct endocytotic pathways. We now investigated their participation in syndecan-1-mediated disposal of C-TRLs and their expression in T2DM liver.
APPROACH AND RESULTS
In cultured liver cells and nondiabetic murine livers, we found that syndecan-1 robustly coimmunoprecipitates with FLOT1 (flotillin-1) but not with CAV1 (caveolin-1). Binding of C-TRLs to syndecan-1 on liver cells enhanced syndecan-1/FLOT1 association, and the 2 molecules then trafficked together into the lysosomes, implying limited if any recycling back to the cell surface. The interaction requires the transmembrane/cytoplasmic region of syndecan-1 and the N-terminal hydrophobic domain of FLOT1. Knockdown of FLOT1 in cultured liver cells substantially inhibited syndecan-1 endocytosis. Livers from obese, T2DM KKA(y) mice exhibited 60% to 70% less FLOT1 mRNA and protein than in nondiabetic KK livers. An adenoviral construct to enhance hepatic expression of wild-type FLOT1 in T2DM mice normalized plasma triglycerides, whereas a mutant FLOT1 missing its N-terminal hydrophobic domain had no effect. Moreover, the adenoviral vector for wild-type FLOT1 lowered plasma TG excursions and normalized retinyl excursions in T2DM KKA(y) mice after corn oil gavage, without affecting postprandial production of C-TRLs.
FLOT1 is a novel participant in the disposal of harmful C-TRLs via syndecan-1. Low expression of FLOT1 in T2DM liver may contribute to metabolic dyslipoproteinemia.