Papillomavirus research (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2017 11 074() 90-98 pii 10.1016/j.pvr.2017.10.004
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) as a precursor to anal cancer. However, factors other than hrHPV are likely to be involved and further study of cofactors is required because of the possibility of syndemic interactions.
Three hundred and fourteen patients underwent 457 operations. Histopathology and hrHPV testing using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2) method were performed. Demographic factors and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) were recorded.
Results showed that hrHPV alone was associated with HSIL (OR = 4.65, p < 0.001). None of the other STIs were alone associated with HSIL but amplification of risk was found when hrHPV infection occurred with HIV (OR = 11.1); syphilis (OR = 5.58); HSV 2 (OR = 7.85); gonorrhoea (OR = 6.45) and some other infections. CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that hrHPV is a sufficient cause of anal HSIL. Seropositivity for HIV, HSV 2, T. pallidum, HBV and HCV and a history of gonorrhoea or chlamydia exert a powerful amplifying factor increasing the risk of HSIL above the risk with hrHPV alone. Other co-factors which are associated with an increased risk of HSIL are increased age, male gender, MSM behaviour and self-reported history of more than 50 sexual partners. This pattern of disease in patients with warts is characteristic of a syndemic with potential serious increased risk of anal carcinoma.