Previous studies have shown a much greater antiviral activity of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), compared to lignin precursors, tannins and flavonoids, suggesting its possible application to oral diseases. Systematic comparative study with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been limited compared to that with HIV. In the present study, we investigated whether combination of SE with other popular antiviral agents further enhances their individual activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cell viability of mock-infected, HIV-infected and HSV-infected cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The antiviral activity was evaluated by the selectivity index, defined as the ratio of 50% cytotoxic concentration to 50% effective concentration. Synergy between SE and antiviral agents was evaluated by MacSynerg and CompuSyn software.
SE showed potent anti-HIV activity, although its activity was two-orders lower than that of azidothymidine, 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine dextran sulfate and curdlan sulfate. Combination of SE with these antiviral agents produced synergistic effects. Using a newly established MTT assay system for anti-HSV activity, SE and acyclovir were found to have synergistic anti-HSV activity.
The present study suggests the possible efficacy of the clinical application of SE combined with antiviral agents.