In present study, a new series of 4, 7-disubstituted coumarin derivatives (7a-y) have been synthesized as galectin-1 targeting apoptosis inducing agents and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic potentials against a panel of selected human cancer cell lines namely, Brest (MCF7), Ovarian (SKOV3), Prostate (PC-3 & DU145) and normal embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, using MTT assay. Most of the compounds exhibited potent growth inhibitory action against the treated cancer cell lines with an IC range of 10-30 µM. Compound 7q exhibited a significant growth inhibition against prostate cancer (PC-3 & DU145) cell lines with an IC value of 7.45 ± 0.03 µM, 8.95 ± 0.17 µM respectively. Further, the target compound 7q was radiolabeled with fluorine-18 [F] to be used as a novel PET radiotracer for imaging of tumors via targeting galectin-1, using appropriate reaction conditions in the GE Tracer-lab FX2N synthesis module. The purification of the [F] radiolabeled compound [F]-7q was successfully achieved with 60% ethanol. The radiochemical purity was>85% and residual solvent limits of DMF was 65 ± 3 ppm as analysed by HPLC, TLC & GC analytical methods. The apoptosis studies confirm the inhibition of cell proliferation with morphological changes like cell shrinkage, blebbing and cell wall deformation, increasing the ROS levels, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst-33342 staining, HDCFDA staining, annexin V-FITC/PI, and JC-1 staining methods. In flow cytometric analysis, 7q selectively arrested the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner. In Gal-1 ELISA studies, compound 7q efficiently reduced the levels of Gal-1 protein in dose-dependent manner with an IC value of 100 µM. The binding constant (K) of 7q with Gal-1 was observed as 1.3 × 10 M by fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular docking studies clearly showed possible interactions and the pharmacokinetic (ADMET) properties of compound 7q with Gal-1. Hence, the novel 4, 7-disubstituted coumarins could be a potential cytotoxic and PET imaging agents via Gal-1.
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