In asthma research, it is vitally important to develop appropriate biomarkers for asthma phenotype, identify those at risk of aggravation and advise treatment. The study attempted to analyse the existing and future biomarkers in the last two years with a focus on developments disclosed. Type 2 inflammation, with the most biomarkers in the pipeline, is the most investigated asthma mechanism. The most common applications clinically are blood eosinophils and fractional nitric oxide (FeNO). They can identify those who are more at risk for exacerbations, deterioration and benefit more from anti-IL-5 and Anti-IL-4/-13 treatments in recent advancements. Their potential has also increased. Some urine excretion patterns also refer to inflammation of type 2.
There have been somewhat deceptive results of recent studies on the use of serum periostin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to advise anti-IL-13 therapy. Inflammation of non-type 2 is not well understood, however in individuals with signs of non-type 2 asthma, blood neutrophils and YKL-40 may be increased. The capacity to identify eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma of volatile organic molecules is promising. The ultimate biomarker panel for the detection and therapy of active inflammatory pathways in asthma patients is yet in the future, especially with non-type 2 asthma, but there are possible possibilities accessible.