Retinopathy Linked to Cerebrovascular Disease

American researchers have found that retinopathy appears to be a marker of cerebrovascular disease that could impact cognition and brain changes. In a study, retinopathy was associated with poorer scores on the modified Mini-Mental State Examination and greater ischemic volumes in the total brain and parietal lobe. Abstract: Neurology, March 27,...
Guidelines for Intracranial Neurointerventional Procedures

Guidelines for Intracranial Neurointerventional Procedures

Rapid advancements in endovascular interventions have facilitated the use of intracranial endovascular interventions to treat cerebrovascular diseases using minimally invasive intravascular techniques. Developments in computer-aided imaging and high-resolution digital subtraction angiography with reconstruction techniques, as well as easier access to the cerebral vasculature through improved microcatheter design, have lured the interest of physicians across multiple specialties. Consequently, the increasing popularity of these interventions has led to some controversy regarding who should perform these procedures and the methods of training. Other controversies surround how the efficacy and safety of endovascular procedures compare with standard open procedures. Considering these issues, guidelines have been released by the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA). Published in the April 6, 2009 issue of Circulation, the guidelines examine current information and data about the safety and efficacy of procedures that are used for intracranial endovascular interventional treatment of cerebrovascular diseases (Table 1). They also provide recommendations based on the best available evidence to date. A Multidisciplinary Approach AFL may be caused by abnormalities or diseases of the heart as well as diseases elsewhere in the body that affect the heart. These include diseases of the heart valves, especially the mitral valve, and chamber enlargement/hypertrophy. Diseases of the heart that have been linked to AFL include ischemia, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. Other diseases/conditions associated with AFL include hyperthyroidism, pulmonary embolism, COPD and emphysema, alcoholism, and stimulant abuse. Some patients with AFL will experience few or no symptoms. For this reason, AFL is often identified incidentally with an electrocardiogram. Other ways to diagnose AFL include cardiac rhythm assessment with outpatient Holter monitoring,...