Diabetes Side Effects: Breaking the Silence

Diabetes Side Effects: Breaking the Silence

Sexual and urologic complications among men and women with diabetes have historically received relatively little attention from clinicians. Diabetes impacts the function and structure of the lower urinary tract, including the bladder and prostate. Studies suggest that urologic complications resulting from diabetes may be even more common than that of widely recognized microvascular complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, or nephropathy. “Diabetes can lead to different types of sexual and urologic complications in both men and women,” says Jeanette S. Brown, MD (Table 1). “These include urinary incontinence (UI), poor bladder emptying, sexual dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Treatment options are available for many of these sexual and urologic complications. Unfortunately, these problems often go unaddressed because patients oftentimes will not discuss these issues with their clinicians.” Caring for Women: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Urinary incontinence has been estimated to be more common in women with type 2 diabetes than in women with normal glucose levels (Table 2). There is also evidence that women with pre-diabetes are at higher risk for incontinence. The clinical diagnosis of UI—and more broadly, LUTS—is typically based on a variety of factors, and Dr. Brown says that clinicians can be proactive by paying attention to patient complaints when they arise. “It can often be difficult for women to speak up when they develop issues like UI, LUTS, or UTIs, but we should be asking them about these symptoms regularly during office visits,” Dr. Brown says. “When symptoms are identified, we can then take that opportunity to educate patients about the possible treatment options that are available to manage these...

Reducing Triglyceride Levels in Patients at Risk for CVD

Almost one-third of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride levels (>150 mg/dL), and these levels are continuing to rise in adults aged 20 to 49 at rates that mirror those of obesity and diabetes diagnoses among the young. Observational and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that high triglycerides (200-500 mg/dL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the highest levels (≥1,000 mg/dL) associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis. “High triglyceride levels indicate that patients have high levels of circulating cholesterol-rich remnants,” explains Michael Miller, MD. “Cholesterol-rich remnants are highly atherogenic.” Dr. Miller chaired an American Heart Association (AHA) writing committee that published a scientific statement on triglycerides and CVD in the April 18, 2011 issue of Circulation. “There has been little consensus in the literature about the role of triglycerides in coronary disease,” he says. “There has been no detailed statement on triglycerides that has systematically reviewed both the pathophysiologic and clinical trial evidence to date. For this reason, the AHA felt it was necessary to educate healthcare providers about the importance of triglycerides as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk.” He adds that the 2011 AHA position statement analyzed more than 500 international studies from the past 30 years. Helpful Strategies in Reducing Triglycerides Dr. Miller says it is well known that dietary and other lifestyle interventions can help patients lose weight and have a strong effect on triglyceride levels. “These improvements also translate into salutary effects on systolic blood pressure and glucose, reduced insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation, thereby resulting in an improved metabolic profile.” According to the guidelines, substituting unsaturated dietary fats...