Obesity has emerged as one of the main public health problems. This condition triggers a series of hormonal and metabolic changes related to a low-grade chronic inflammatory condition. The trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind (TTIp) seeds is a promising anti-inflammatory molecule, but its safety needs to be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate TTIp bioactive dose effects on organs involved in its metabolism (liver and pancreas) and affected tissues (small intestine and perirenal adipose tissue) in an obesity model.
Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were used (n = 5). Two of these groups had diet-induced obesity, and a third group was eutrophic. TTIp was administered by gavage in one of the obese groups for 10 days, while the remaining groups received a vehicle. The chromatographic profile and the inhibition assay corroded the purification of the inhibitor. Physical and behavioral changes, liver enzymes, and stereological and histopathological analyses of tissues were evaluated.
TTIp did not cause visible signs of toxicity, nor caused changes in liver enzymes, the liver, and pancreatic tissues. TTIp did not cause changes in the intestinal mucosa, showing improvement in the villi’s histopathological characteristics compared to the group of animals with obesity without treatment with TTIp (p = 0.004). The analysis of perirenal adipose tissue showed that the average sectional area of animals with obesity that received TTIp did not differ from the control. There was a difference between the high glycemic load diet group and the group treated with the inhibitor (351.8 ± 55.5) (p = 0.016). In addition, the group that received TTIp had no inflammatory infiltrates.
Based on histological and stereological analysis, the use of TTIp is potentially safe and anti-inflammatory in the evaluated obesity model and can be investigated as a possible adjuvant in obesity therapy.

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.