Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and the availability of comprehensive genomic profiling has allowed for the characterization of its molecular subtypes. This has increased the ability to deliver “personalized medicines” by tailoring therapies to target driver mutations in a patient’s cancer. The development of targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has helped define the era of precision medicine throughout oncology. This article aims to contextualize recent research and provide an updated summary of targeted therapies available for patients with NSCLC. With practitioners and clinical researchers in mind, we note standard of care therapies, important approvals, practice guidelines, and treatments in development. The first section discusses mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor () gene, and the second section examines rearrangements in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase () and fusions. Finally, we explore the rarer molecular alterations in , , , , and . Given the many available therapies, it is important to understand the molecular alterations in NSCLC, and how to target them.Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.