The diagnosis and monitoring of Sjögren syndrome (SS) is often difficult, requiring a multidisciplinary approach with invasive procedures. Our aim is to elucidate the tear protein alterations of dry eye disease (DED) with primary SS (pSS) and secondary SS (sSS) with the long-term instillation of eyedrops. We collected clinical demographics and tear fluid (TF) samples from DED patients with no autoimmune diseases (non-SS-DED), pSS-DED, and sSS-DED patients, followed by TF screening with tandem mass tagging-labeling gel-free proteomics assay. Bioinformatic analysis via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to identify functional pathways and interacting networks. Validation of candidate proteins with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on the tear samples was done. The top functional pathways of the two comparisons (sSS-DED vs. pSS-DED and sSS-DED vs. non-SS-DED) were both associated with inflammation and stress-related signaling. After constructing an interaction network model with the selected candidate proteins, five proteins were identified. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) was found to be an important candidate biomarker in all groups, followed by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in TF. This study revealed novel DED markers, ADAM10 and EGF, in differentiating between primary and secondary SS patients from tears by in-depth proteomic analysis.