Vertebral fractures are clinically important sequelae of a wide array of pediatric diseases. In this study we examined the accuracy of case-finding strategies for detecting incident vertebral fractures (IVF) over two years in glucocorticoid-treated children (n = 343) with leukemia, rheumatic disorders, or nephrotic syndrome. Two clinical situations were addressed: the prevalent vertebral fracture (PVF) scenario (when baseline PVF status was known), which assessed the utility of PVF and low lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD; Z-score < -1.4), and the Non-PVF scenario (when PVF status was unknown), which evaluated low LS BMD and back pain. LS BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, vertebral fractures were quantified on spine radiographs using the modified Genant semi-quantitative method, and back pain was assessed by patient report. Forty-four patients (12.8%) had IVF. In the PVF scenario, both low LS BMD and PVF were significant predictors of IVF. Using PVF to determine which patients should have radiographs, 11% would undergo radiography (95% CI, 8, 15) with 46% of IVF (95% CI, 30, 61) detected. Sensitivity would be higher with a strategy of PVF or low LS BMD at baseline (73%; 95% CI, 57, 85), but would require radiographs in 37% of children (95% CI, 32, 42). In the Non-PVF scenario, the strategy of low LS BMD and back pain produced the highest specificity of any non-PVF model at 87% (95% CI, 83, 91), the greatest overall accuracy at 82% (95% CI, 78, 86), and the lowest radiography rate at 17% (95% CI, 14, 22). Low LS BMD or back pain in the non-PVF scenario produced the highest sensitivity at 82% (95% CI, 67, 92), but required radiographs in 65% (95% CI, 60, 70). These results provide guidance for targeting spine radiography in children at risk for IVF.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.