The analysis of the written sources allowed to follow the gradual development of every new technique in the field of rhinoplasty but also to understand the value of this surgery in those ancient times, highlighting a deep connection between traumatologic surgery of the nose and the development of modern “aesthetic and reconstructive” Rhinosurgery. Specifically, we analyzed the techniques described by less known surgeons to emphasize their cultural and surgical value. As a matter of fact, the descriptions offered by these authors clearly show the importance of rhinoplasty as a cardinal and autonomous practice since Antiquity, also clarifying the persistence and development of specific techniques for this surgical practice in the History of medicine. In the manuscript, the contributions of the Italian surgeons, such as Brancas and Vianeos families, are highlighted, demonstrating their influence on the progress of this surgical specialty in the Early Modern Age. Finally, we deepen the description of Gaspare Tagliacozzi’s work, pointing out the topics and controversial debates arising from his techniques and innovations in “rhinosurgery” and also in the field of tissue transplantation, laying the foundations of modern Plastic Surgery.Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine Ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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