First, to investigate whether specific manic symptoms in preschool predict manic symptom severity in adolescence. Second, to investigate the interaction between family history (FH) of bipolar disorder (BP) and preschool manic symptoms in predicting later adolescent manic symptom severity.
This analysis utilized data from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS) which followed 306 preschoolers aged 3-6 years over time since 2003. Only subjects that had data both at baseline (age 3-6 years) and at or after age 12 were included (n=122). Baseline manic symptom severity scores and diagnoses were assessed by the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Manic symptoms severity at age ≥ 12 was assessed by the Kiddie Mania Rating Scale (KMRS). FH were ascertained by Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS). Multilevel models of KMRS total score at age ≥ 12 by preschool mania symptoms with gender, baseline age, baseline ADHD as well as baseline MDD diagnosis as covariates, and false discovery rate correction were used in statistical analysis.
Hypertalkativity, flight of ideas, uninhibited gregariousness, decreased need for sleep (DNFS), and increased motor pressure/ motor activity/ energy in preschool were associated with increased KMRS score at age ≥ 12. Racing thoughts, inappropriate laughing, and DNFS in early childhood were associated with higher manic symptoms in adolescence in subjects with FH of BP compared to those without FH.
The longitudinal clinical importance of displaying manic symptoms (racing thoughts, inappropriate laughing, and DNFS) in early childhood varies by FH. Among the aforementioned symptoms, DNFS was a robust predictor of later manic symptoms. Assessing FH of BP is very important in clinical risk prediction from early childhood.
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