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The Association of Combined Total Kidney and Liver Volume with Pain and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Later Stage Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

The Association of Combined Total Kidney and Liver Volume with Pain and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Later Stage Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.
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D'Agnolo HMA, Casteleijn NF, Gevers TJG, de Fijter H, van Gastel MDA, Messchendorp AL, Peters DJM, Salih M, Soonawala D, Spithoven EM, Visser FW, Wetzels JFM, Zietse R, Gansevoort RT, Drenth JPH,


D'Agnolo HMA, Casteleijn NF, Gevers TJG, de Fijter H, van Gastel MDA, Messchendorp AL, Peters DJM, Salih M, Soonawala D, Spithoven EM, Visser FW, Wetzels JFM, Zietse R, Gansevoort RT, Drenth JPH, (click to view)

D'Agnolo HMA, Casteleijn NF, Gevers TJG, de Fijter H, van Gastel MDA, Messchendorp AL, Peters DJM, Salih M, Soonawala D, Spithoven EM, Visser FW, Wetzels JFM, Zietse R, Gansevoort RT, Drenth JPH,

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American journal of nephrology 2017 09 0846(3) 239-248 doi 10.1159/000479436

Abstract
BACKGROUND
There is an ongoing debate if and how kidney and liver volume are associated with pain and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Since both kidney and liver volume could interact, we investigated whether combined total kidney and liver volume had stronger associations with ADPKD-related pain and GI symptoms than the volumes of the organs separately.

METHODS
We used baseline data from the DIPAK-1 study, which included ADPKD patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. MR imaging was performed to measure height-adjusted total kidney volume (hTKV), height-adjusted total liver volume (hTLV) and the combination of both (height-adjusted total kidney liver volume [hTKLV]).

RESULTS
Three hundred nine ADPKD patients were included with a mean age of 48 ± 7 years, 53% female, eGFR 50 ± 11 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median hTKV, hTLV and hTKLV of 1,095 (758-1,669), 1,173 (994-1,523) and 2,496 (1,972-3,352) mL/m, respectively. ADPKD-related pain and GI symptoms were present in, respectively, 27.5 and 61.2% of patients. Gender was no effect modifier in the association between kidney and/or liver volume, and symptom burden, indicating that all models could be tested in the overall study population. hTKLV and hTLV were significantly associated with pain and GI symptoms, whereas hTKV was not. Model testing revealed that the associations of pain and GI symptoms with hTKLV were significantly stronger than with hTKV (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively) but not when compared to hTLV (p = 0.2 and p = 0.5, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS
This study indicates that combined kidney and liver volume was associated with the presence and severity of pain and GI symptoms in ADPKD, with a more prominent role for hTLV than for hTKV.

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