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The association of kidney function with repetitive breath-hold diving activities of female divers from Korea, Haenyeo.

The association of kidney function with repetitive breath-hold diving activities of female divers from Korea, Haenyeo.
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Oh YJ, Jung JY, Kim SS, Chae KS, Rhu J, Lee C,


Oh YJ, Jung JY, Kim SS, Chae KS, Rhu J, Lee C, (click to view)

Oh YJ, Jung JY, Kim SS, Chae KS, Rhu J, Lee C,

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BMC nephrology 2017 02 2318(1) 75 doi 10.1186/s12882-017-0481-1
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Voluntary apnea during breath-hold diving (BHD) induces cardiovascular changes including bradycardia, reduced cardiac output, and arterial hypertension. Although the impacts of repetitive BHD on cardiovascular health have been studied previously, the long-term risk for kidney dysfunction has never been investigated.

METHODS
A cross-sectional propensity score-matched study was performed to evaluate the influence of repetitive long-lasting BHD on kidney function. Using matching propensity scores (PS), 715 breath-hold female divers (Haenyeo) and non-divers were selected for analysis from 1,938 female divers and 3,415 non-divers, respectively. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated to be less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was investigated in both diver and non-diver groups.

RESULTS
The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in breath-hold divers compared with non-divers after PS matching (12.6% vs. 8.0%, P = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, BHD activity was significantly associated with the risk of CKD in an unmatched cohort (OR, 1.976; 95% CI, 1.465-2.664). In the PS-matched cohort, BHD remained the independent risk factor for CKD even after adjusting for multiple covariates (OR 1.967; 95% CI, 1.341-2.886).

CONCLUSION
Shallow but repetitive intermittent apnea by BHD, sustained for a long period of time, may potentially cause a deterioration in kidney function, as a long-term consequence.

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