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The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Cameroon.

The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Cameroon.
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Mandengue CE, Denning DW,


Mandengue CE, Denning DW, (click to view)

Mandengue CE, Denning DW,

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Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland) 2018 03 304(2) pii 10.3390/jof4020044

Abstract

Fungal infections are frequent in Cameroon, and invasive fungal infections are sometimes detected, usually in HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, we have estimated the burden of fungal infections. Using published literature and population estimates for the at-risk group, we used deterministic modelling to derive national incidence and prevalence estimates for the most serious fungal diseases. HIV infection is common and an estimated 120,000 have CD4 counts <200 × 10⁶/mL and commonly present with opportunistic infection. Oesophageal candidiasis in HIV is common, and in poorly controlled diabetics. We estimate 6720 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 9000 ofpneumonia, 1800 of disseminated histoplasmosis annually complicating AIDS, and 1200 deaths from invasive aspergillosis in AIDS, but there are no data. We found that 2.4% of adults have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 2.65% have asthma, with "fungal asthma" affecting 20,000. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects about 5000 people, predominantly after tuberculosis but also with COPD and other lung diseases. Also, tinea capitis in schoolchildren is frequent. Overall, an estimated 1,235,775 people are affected by a serious fungal infection. There is an urgent need for government and clinician attention, improved laboratory facilities, fungal diagnostic tests, and competent laboratory technicians, as well as all World Health Organization (WHO)-endorsed essential antifungal drugs to be made available, as only fluconazole is registered and available in the country.

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