Over-expression of CXCR4 activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB, induces high expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, IL-1β and IL-18, which promotes severe inflammatory response following myocardial infarction. Previous studies revealed inflammation induces anxiety after myocardial infarction. The Chaihujialonggumuli granule has anti-inflammatory properties and could tranquillize mind. But the mechanism of its efficacy remains unknown. This study was to investigate the possible mechanism of BFG on cardioprotective and anxiolytic.
The expression of CXCR4, NF-κB, NLRP3and GSDMD was measured with western-blot, QRT-PCR. The expression location of CXCR4, NLRP3, GSDMD were determined by immunohistochemistry. IL-1β、IL-18 in the peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. HE staining, Masson staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe morphological changes of cardiomyocytes. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function after cardiac surgery. Elevated cross maze test and open field test were used to evaluate behaviours. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of 5-HT, DA, IL-1β, IL-18 and neuron damage was investigated by Nissl staining in the hippocampus.
The up-regulation of CXCR4, NF-κB, NLRP3 and GSDMD were found in the infarcted area after left coronary artery ligation. Pathological staining and analysis showed that more severe inflammatory cytokines infiltration, myocardial fibrosis, were found in myocardial tissue of the complex group rats. And when compared to the sham group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-18 was increased of the complex group in both peripheral blood and brain. Behavioural test and echocardiography indicated that the rats in complex group exploration behaviours was significantly reduced, and with poor cardiac functional recovery. The AMD3100 had an inhibitory impact of CXCR4 on the activition of its downstream effectors, alleviating inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, the BFG decreased the expression level of CXCR4, NF-κB, GSDMD, NLRP3 in the infarcted area after myocardial infarction, when compared to the complex group. The assays in the brain indicated the BFG suppressed expression and activity of IL-1β, IL-18, and improved 5-HT and DA synthesis.
In sum, our study indicated that BFG may reduce inflammation, treat co-existing anxiety after myocardial infarction through inhibition of CXCR4/NF-κB/GSDMD signalling.

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