A wide range of conditions involving the cecum may be found in patients undergoing imaging work-up for conditions as various as right lower pain, diarrhea, fever, and weight loss. The cecum may be the only area of involvement by a particular disease. However, it may also be affected by a more diffuse process of the gastrointestinal tract or even as part of systemic diseases. Imaging provides an excellent evaluation of the cecal region and its surrounding planes, with an impactful clinical application in multiple scenarios. While typical features in many situations allow establishing a confident diagnosis, there are also challenging entities with overlapping features, making it critical for the radiologist awareness of the whole gamut of these conditions, as well as the ability to correlate imaging findings with other clinical data. Additional challenges to the imaging evaluation include anatomical variations of the cecal position and the absence of proper colonic distention in some cases. This article aims to revisit the spectrum of cross-sectional imaging features of common and uncommon pathologies involving the cecum, ranging from inflammatory and infectious to vascular and neoplastic ones.
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