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The challenge of discriminating between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infections.

The challenge of discriminating between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infections.
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Hønge BL, Jespersen S, Medina C, Té DS, da Silva ZJ, Christiansen M, Kjerulff B, Laursen AL, Wejse C, Krarup H, Erikstrup C, ,


Hønge BL, Jespersen S, Medina C, Té DS, da Silva ZJ, Christiansen M, Kjerulff B, Laursen AL, Wejse C, Krarup H, Erikstrup C, , (click to view)

Hønge BL, Jespersen S, Medina C, Té DS, da Silva ZJ, Christiansen M, Kjerulff B, Laursen AL, Wejse C, Krarup H, Erikstrup C, ,

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HIV medicine 2018 03 24() doi 10.1111/hiv.12606

Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Discrimination between HIV-1 and HIV-2 is important to ensure appropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART) and epidemiological surveillance. However, serological tests have shown frequent mistyping when applied in the field. We evaluated two confirmatory tests, INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score and ImmunoComb HIV 1/2 BiSpot, for HIV type discriminatory capacity.

METHODS
Samples from 239 ART-naïve HIV-infected patients from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau were selected retrospectively based on the initial HIV typing performed in Bissau, ensuring a broad representation of HIV types. INNO-LIA results were interpreted by the newest software algorithm, and three independent observers read the ImmunoComb results. HIV-1/HIV-2 RNA and DNA were measured for confirmation.

RESULTS
INNO-LIA results showed 123 HIV-1 positive samples, 69 HIV-2 positive and 47 HIV-1/2 dually reactive. There was agreement between INNO-LIA and HIV-1/HIV-2 RNA and DNA detection, although not all HIV-1/2 dually reactive samples could be confirmed by the nucleic acid results. Overall, the observers found that the ImmunoComb results differed from the INNO-LIA results, with agreements of 90.4, 91.2 and 92.5%, respectively, for HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2. The combined kappa-score for agreement between the three observers was 0.955 (z-score 35.1; P < 0.01). Of the HIV-2 mono-reactive samples (INNO-LIA), the three observers interpreted 24.6-31.9% as HIV-1/2 dually infected by ImmunoComb. None of these samples had detectable HIV-1 RNA or DNA. CONCLUSIONS
There was accordance between INNO-LIA calls and nucleic acid results, whereas ImmunoComb overestimated the number of HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. Confirmatory typing is needed for patients diagnosed with HIV-1/2 dual infection by ImmunoComb.

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