Comprehensive control of multiple cardiovascular risk factors reduces cardiovascular risk but is difficult to achieve.
A multinational, cross-sectional, observational study.
The International ChoLesterol management Practice Study (ICLPS) investigated achievement of European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guideline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients receiving lipid-modifying therapy in countries outside Western Europe. We examined the rate of, and association between, control of multiple risk factors in ICLPS participants with dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension (N = 2377).
Mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 61.4 (10.4) years; 51.3% were male. Type 2 diabetes was the most common form of diabetes (prevalence, 96.9%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 67.8%, obesity 40.4%, atherosclerotic disease 39.6% and coronary artery disease 33.5%. All patients were at high (38.2%) or very high (61.8%) cardiovascular risk according to ESC/EAS guidelines. Body mass index (BMI) was <25 kg/m in 20.3% of patients, 62.8% had never smoked and 25.2% were former smokers. Overall, 12.2% achieved simultaneous control of LDL-C, diabetes and blood pressure. Risk factor control was similar across all participating countries. The proportion of patients achieving individual guideline-specified treatment targets was 43.9% for LDL-C, 55.5% for blood pressure and 39.3% for diabetes. Multiple correspondence analysis indicated that control of LDL-C, control of blood pressure, control of diabetes, BMI and smoking were associated.
Comprehensive control of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in high-risk patients is suboptimal worldwide. Failure to control one risk factor is associated with poor control of other risk factors.