The comprehensive measurement of autoimmune disease-related antibodies (Abs) before immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment may be useful for predicting the development of immune-related adverse events (irAEs); however, the clinical utility is not well known.
We retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced solid tumors treated with ICI monotherapy or doublet combination therapy between July 2014 and December 2020 at single institute. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) Ab, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) Ab, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) Ab, anti-acetylcholine esterase receptor (AchR) Ab, and platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PA-IgG) Ab were comprehensively measured for the screening before ICI therapy.
Of 275 registered patients (median age, 70 years; male, 64.4%; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, 88.7%; and prior regimen of 0-1/≥2, 88.7%/11.3%), 128 non-small-cell lung cancer, 35 gastric cancer, 33 head and neck cancer, 24 melanoma, 19 renal cell carcinoma, 13 urothelial carcinoma, 12 esophageal cancer, 5 malignant mesothelioma of pleura, 2 endometrial cancer, and 4 other cancer were included. The number of patients with positive ANA, Tg, TPO, PA-IgG, GAD, and AchR Abs was 52 (24.9%), 38 (14.5%), 11 (10.1%), 6 (3.5%), 5 (2.0%), and 1 (0.5%), respectively. There was no association between the development of any irAEs and Abs positivity, while thyroid dysfunction developed more frequently among patients with than without Tg Ab or TPO Ab (39.5% versus 12.5%, P < 0.01; 45.5% versus 14.3%, P = 0.02).
The clinical utility of comprehensive measurement of autoimmune disease-related Abs before introduction of ICI therapy was limited for predicting irAE. However, Tg and TPO Abs were risk factors as regards the development of ICI-induced thyroid dysfunction.

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