Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of premature mortality in the US and concurrent use is associated with even greater health risks. A cross-sectional study of 20,310 patients admitted to a Mid-Atlantic acute health care system between July 1, 2018 and June 30, 2019 were categorized according to smoking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) status. Of the total admissions, 1464 (7.2%) were current smokers with an AUD. These patients were younger (52.4 vs. 63.9), more likely to be male (64.1% vs. 38.0%) and covered by Medicaid (46.9% vs. 11.6%), and resided in proximity to higher counts of tobacco (10.3 vs. 4.72) and alcohol (2.24 vs. 1.14) retailers than never smokers without an AUD. Clinically, these patients had higher rates of other substance use disorders (60.4% vs. 6.1%), depression (64.6% vs. 34.8%), HIV/AIDS (3.3% vs. 0.6%), and liver disease (40.7% vs. 13.2%) than never smokers without an AUD. Patients who concurrently smoke and have an AUD face unique and serious health risks. A multimorbidity framework can guide clinical and community-based interventions for individuals with concurrent psychiatric and chronic medical conditions, complex social needs, and adverse environmental exposures.
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