Germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) is a unique and multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in cell biology, neurodegenerative disorders, immunohematology, and oncogenesis. GANP is an orthologue of Saccharomyces Sac3, one of the components of the TREX-2 complex and a messenger RNA (mRNA) nuclear export factor. GANP is widely conserved in all mammals, including humans. Although GANP was originally discovered as a molecule upregulated in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles in peripheral lymphoid organs, it is expressed ubiquitously in many tissues. It serves numerous functions, including making up part of the mammalian TREX-2 complex; mRNA nuclear export via nuclear pores; prevention of R-loop formation, genomic instability, and hyperrecombination; and B-cell affinity maturation. In this review, we first overview the extensive analyses that have revealed the basic functions of GANP and its ancestor molecule Sac3, including mRNA nuclear export and regulation of R-loop formation. We then describe how aberrant expression of GANP is significantly associated with cancer development. Moreover, we discuss a crucial role for GANP in B-cell development, especially affinity maturation in germinal centers. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of GANP in B cells leads to lymphomagenesis resembling Hodgkin lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells, and that GANP may be involved in transdifferentiation of B cells to macrophages, which strongly affects Hodgkin lymphomagenesis.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.