Acute and chronic inflammation in the central nervous system plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Various pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes such as TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-6, COX-1, COX-2, iNOS, IKK, and inducible nitric oxide are expressed in several signalling pathways, and mediate the neuroinflammatory process. ROS and NF-kB nuclear translocation are the two fundamental pathways involved in neuroinflammatory pathogenesis in neuronal and glial cells. In recent years several compoundswere designed to affect the neuroinflammation and suppress neurodegenerative process. Derivatives of natural products (NPs) attract the most attention of drug developers and industries due to their safety and lesser side effects in comparison with generic drugs. One of the most well-known NP is piperine, which is a yellow crystalline alkaloid extracted from black and white pepper. Recently, we developed a novel piperine derivative (((2E,4E)-5-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)penta-2,4-dienamide, D4) to enhance the specificity and efficacy of the base molecule. Next, we evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory properities of D4 in CHME3 and SVG cell-lines corresponding to human microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Our results indicated that D4 inhibited NF-kB translocation pathway, and significantly reduced transcript and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in comparison with Aspirin, as a well-known non-selective NSAID. Furthermore, in silico study showed excellent D4 bioavailability in oral administration. The results of the present study suggest a novel molecule with high anti-neuroinflammatory potency for further pre-clinical tests and pharmacological drug investigation.
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